In the year 1978 Afghan Government asked The USSR Government to send its troops to Afghanistan predicting internal political instability. Russia wishing to spread her ideology, sent troops to Afghanistan. In retaliation to control Russian invasion of Afghanistan, USA and her capitalist allies declared Russian invasion as infidel war against Islam Afghan refugees in the time of war left their country for Pakistan, Europe, America, and Iran. Unlike Iran Pakistan played the role of front line state against Russian invasion and accommodated Afghan refugees in the country. Iran restricted Afghan peoples to camps while Pakistan having camps for them allowed all the refugees to settle every where in the country and didn't restrict them to camps and certain areas. Afghan People overwhelmingly came to Pakistan-still there are almost 4 million Afghan Refugees living in Pakistan. Having no boundaries, limitations nor restrictions, Afghan People bribed Pakistani officers and made and got Pakistani Nationalities and became the owner of land, shops and huge markets. The government sector to a large extent. It made the life of an ordinary Pakistani citizen miserable because the opportunities of jobs became limited. The Military government of Pakistan and the religion political parties of the time availed the war and got huge amount of money. As the afghan refugees fled Afghanistan and became the members of different societies and they tried to take control of the business sectors. Afghan war also developed klashankove culture in society adjacent to Afghanistan and introduce modern weaponry in these areas, which extinguished the concept of weak and strong and developed a sense of insecurity in the minds of common people. Along with this bomb blasting became the usual events in these societies, particularly, in Pakistan. Afghan people also paved the way for drug trafficking from Afghanistan to different countries. The concept of hire killing was rare in the countries near to Afghanistan but after the arrival of Afghan people it became the indispensable part rivalry and strife. These are those social evils that have become common in the countries accommodating Afghan people but things don't stop here. At the time of Russian invasion USA and its allies termed the Mujahidin (holy warriors) as the gallant, brave and valor heroes of the world. And the US congress raised its $20million to $300million a year for Afghanistan. These warriors were trained in the camps of Pakistan and aid was also reached to them through Pakistan. It (aid) and strategic support of Pakistan made the Mujahidin capable of combating and defeating Russian Forces. On April 14, 1988 Russia agreed to a UN brokered accord (Geneva accords) requiring it to withdraw. The Soviet Union completed the withdrawal on Feb 15, 1989, leaving in place a weak communist government facing determined US-backed Mujahidin. After the disintegration of USSR Afghanistan lost political and strategic value and USA decreased its funding for Afghanistan accordingly. The Taliban movement was formed in 1993 by Afghan Islamic clerics and students of the Islamic Madrasas with the help of Pakistani Government of Benazeer Bhutto (PPP). While the supporters in Afghanistan were the former Mujahidins who had become disillusioned with continued internal conflicts among Mujahidin groups and who moved into the western areas of Pakistan to study in-Islamic seminaries (Madrasas). Taliban rule reached to its climax on September 27, 1996 when they took control of Kabul. Taliban imposed strict adherence to Islamic principles in areas it controls and employed harsh punishments, including execution. The Taliban rule stirred a widespread reaction in the world community as it laid for fundamentalism, neglecting of women and the destruction of Buddha statue in March 2001. Afghanistan once again became the central place of attention.
Historical Background of Afghanistan and Its Geographical Structure Afghanistan is a mountainous country in the south East Asia. Afghanistan has a territory of 652000sq km. In ancient record the total area of Afghanistan is 750000 sq km. According to the experts, almost more than 100000 sq km Afghan territory has been captured by Iran which is solidated in Balochistan and Khurasan.In the time of Taliban rule Iran feared that Taliban could ask back their territory from Iran Afghanistan Boundary . In the West Afghanistan shares 1300km boundary with Iran, in the south east Afghanistan has 2300km boundary with Pakistan, with china 150km and in north it shares 3240km boundary with Tajikistan,uzbakhstan and Turkmenistan. There are six capital cities in Afghanistan, capital Kabul in eastern Afghanistan, Jalalabad,in western Afghanistan Herat, in southern Afghanistan Kandahar,in central Afghanistan ghazni and in northern Afghanistan Mizar-e-sharif. All the provinces except mizarsharif were in the control of Taliban before the advent of NATO invasion. There are two international airports in Afghanistan,one is in the capital Kabul and the second is in Kandahar.These and the ten other airports were in the control of Taliban before the present rule.The other small airports are (1)in Jalalabad,in(2)Herat(3)Farah(4)Nemroz(5)Ghaur(6)Ghazni ( 7)Khaust(8)Gardez (9)Helmand and(10) in Kundooz. There are ten trade cities in Afghanistan namely,Kandahar,Herat,Zaranj(Nemroz),Jalalabad,Khost,Asadabad(kunar),Kundooz,Mazarsharif,Kabul and Ghazni.Besides Mizarsharif all these cities were in the direct control of Taliban before the present regime. There are ten routes for imports and exports in Afghanistan. These are Spin Buldak, Torkham adjacent to Peshawar, Torghundi touching turkmanestan,Islam Qala near to Iran border,Zaranj near to Zahidan city of iran,Ghulam Khan (Khost) touching Miran Shah in Pakistan, Bandar Sher Khan at the border of Tajikistan,Barmal with the southern Waziristan of Pakistan,Marori adjacent to Bajawar agency in Pakistan,Heart port with the border of Uzbakistan.Except the last, all the trade routes were under the domination of Taliban. Battle Fields in the time of Taliban These include those places where Taliban confronted different war lords and organizations. 1-In District Qaisaar in Faryab province, Taliban were combating Rashid Dostam, 2-In Dara Yargank near samangan and kundooz Taliban were fighting Rashid Dostam, 3-In Baghlan, Taliban were fighting the Aga Khani and Hizb-e-Wahdat 4-In Takhaar province Taliban were combating Masaud, 5-In Parwaan and Bamyaan provinces, Taliban were in the battle with Hizb-e-Wahdat, 6-In Kapeesa province, Taliban were confronting General Masaud, 7-In Wardak and Bamyaan provinces Taliban were fighting Hizb-e-Wahdat, 8-In Parwaan and near Kabul Taliban were General Masaud and 9-Near Panjsher Taliban were fighting General Masaud.
Areas under the control of different warlords during the Taliban regime:
Communist controlled areas: Name of Province-----------------Central City------------------Total Area
1)Balkh Mizarsharif 12593sqkm
2)Jozjan- Shabarghan 25553sq km
3)Faryab Meymaneh 22279km
4)Sumungaan Aibak 15665km Total area of land:75890sq km.
Note:All the four provinces were given to General Dostam by Ahmed Shah Masaud in a secret agreement held under the supervision of Russian intelligence agency,KJB.
Areas controlled by Hizb -e-Wahd Name of Province-----------------Central City------------------Total Area Bamyaan Bamyaan 17414
Rabbani and Masaud held areas: Name of Province-----------------Central City------------------Total Area Badakhshan Faizabad 47403sqkm Takhaar Talaqaan 12376sqkm Kapeesa Mehmood Raqi 1871sqkm
Note: Beside these areas all of Afghanistan was under the control of Taliban. The total area controlled by Taliban was 458955sqkm. to be cont,,,by Qamar yousafzai journalist from Pakistan.phone+92-333-7817511-
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